Companies subject to the JFTC investigations are frequently at risk of civil claims from their counterparties both in Japan and in international cases in the U.S. and increasingly the EU. Over the years AMT has developed deep expertise in defending clients in such civil claims in court, including in formulating strategies for dealing with the U.S. class actions. We ensure that we provide practical advice to our clients, taking into full consideration the possible litigation risks from the very start of the JFTC’s investigation of an alleged infringement. In addition, we also advise clients on administrative penalties (i.e. so-called "de facto" penalties imposed by central, municipal or local governments and state companies of Japan) or suspensions from participating in bidding for public projects.